The PDFs below come from the Ford Foundation.

Excerpts from an e-mail conversation to indicate why we include these materials herein:

“I just read the Edmonton materials. At some point we collected a bunch of "framing" materials from George Lakoff and others that described in some detail what to say and what not to say when addressing poverty related problems. As I recall this stuff came with research data to support the conclusions. Also as I recall, the material featured one indisputable conclusion—never include the word "poverty" in any written products or say the word out loud.

Judging from the Edmonton and Circles materials there are all sorts of second and even third generation anti-poverty initiatives floating around out there now that did not get the Lakoff memo. Is there some way to tactfully suggest to these people that they are beating a dead horse?” JJ

--John Johnston, January 4, 2022

“Yes, the research by Lakoff and others found that the use of the word 'poverty' instantly triggers support from about 30%-40% of the population and triggers indifference or negative reactions in everybody else. The Lakoff and other research by Meg Bostrom said 'economic security,' 'economic opportunity' or 'opportunity for all' or other aspirational phrases that appeal to a majority of the population create a bigger arena in which to operate. Just another set of research we have failed to operationalize.” --Jim Masters, January 4, 2022

Ford Bostrom 2001 Aug Achieving the Am Dream.pdf
Ford Bostrom 2001 Sep Between Rock & Hard Place.pdf
Ford Bostrom 2002 Mar Respon & Oppty.pdf
Ford Bostrom 2002 Jun Respon Planning.pdf
Ford Bostrom 2004 Aug Together for Success.pdf